The information on this page is based on APA 6th edition. We will update the examples to the 7th edition as soon as possible.
APA requires in-text citations and a reference list. References are cited in-text with author-date system and are listed alphabetically by author name in the Reference List.
Author names are inverted. Example: Smith, J.D.
Reference lists should be double-spaced and in hanging indent format (indented 5 spaces).
Book titles and journal titles are italicized. Article titles are not italicized.
Full journal titles are used rather than journal title abbreviations.
Include DOIs for online articles. If DOI isn't available, include journal homepage URL.
If you have an article citation without a DOI, you can look up the DOI at CrossRef.org.
Likewise, if you have a DOI but not the citation information, you can look up the citation at DOI.org.
Some articles and journals do not provide DOIs--it is the publisher's preference to include or not to include a DOI. When citing an article without a DOI, check the style manual (AMA, APA, etc.) for guidance.
Provide the DOI when it is available. If the DOI is not available, provide the URL of the journal's homepage. Do not list a retrieval date. Do not put a period at the end of the URL or DOI.
Print articles are cited exactly like online articles except there is no DOI or URL included.
When there are 1-7 authors, list all authors in the reference list. When there are 8 or more authors, list the first 6 authors, insert 3 ellipses, and add the last author.
For 1-5 authors, list all authors for the first in-text citation. For all subsequent citations list only the first author followed by "et al." For 6 or more authors, list only the first author followed by "et al."
1 - 2 Authors:
Cropley, T. G. (2008). Dermatology and skin disease in the American Civil War. Dermatology Nursing, 20, 29-33.
Rowney, R., & Barton, G. (2005). The role of public health nursing in emergency preparedness and response. Nursing Clinics of North America, 40, 499-509.
(Rowney & Barton, 2008)
3 - 7 Authors:
Rohrer, J. E., Naessens, J. M., Liesinger, J., & Litchy, W. (2010). Comparing diverse health promotion programs using overall self-rated health as a common metric. Population Health Management, 13, 91-95.
(Rohrer, Naessens, Liesinger, & Litchy, 2010)
(Rohrer et al., 2010)
8 or More Authors:
Chen, M. I., Lee, V. J., Lim, W. Y., Barr, I. G., Lin, R. T., Koh, G. C., ...Leo, Y. S. (2010). 2009 influenza A(H1N1) seroconversion rates and risks factors among distinct adult cohorts in Singapore. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 303, 1383-1391.
(Chen et al., 2010)
Online Articles with DOI or URL:
Rowney, R. & Barton, G. (2005). The role of public health nursing in emergency preparedness and response. Nursing Clinics of North America, 40, 499-509. doi:10.1016/j.cnur.2005.04.005.
Rowney, R. & Barton, G. (2005). The role of public health nursing in emergency preparedness and response. Nursing Clinics of North America, 40, 499-509. Retrieved from http://www.nursing.theclinics.com/
Print and online books are cited the same way. If you used the online version, specify which provider you used and give the URL of the provider's homepage. Do not list a retrieval date and do not put a period at the end of the URL.
When there are 1-7 authors, list all authors/editors in the reference list. When there are 8 or more authors/editors, list the first 6 authors, insert 3 ellipses, and add the last author/editor.
For 1-5 authors/editors, list all authors for the first in-text citation. For all subsequent in-text citations, list only the first author/editor followed by "et al." For 6 or more authors/editors, list only the first author followed by "et al."
1 - 2 Authors/Editors:
Ropper, A. H., & Samuels, M. A. (2005). Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology [Access Medicine version]. Retrieved from http://www.accessmedicine.com
(Ropper & Samuels, 2005)
Frumkin, H. (Ed.), (2005). Environmental health: From global to local. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
3 - 7 Authors/Editors:
Kaplan, C., Turner, G. S., & Warrell, D. A. (1986). Rabies: The facts. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
(Kaplan, Turner, & Warrell, 1986) then (Kaplan et al., 1986)
Bartlett, J. D., Jaanus, S. D., Fiscella, R. G., Holdeman, N. R., & Propkopich, C. L. (Eds.). (2008). Clinical ocular pharmacology. St. Louis, MO: Butterworth-Heinemann.
(Bartlett, Jaanus, Fiscella, Holdeman, & Propkopich, 2008) then (Bartlett et al., 2008)
8 or More Authors/Editors:
Walsh, D., Caraceni, A.T., Fainsinger, R., Foley, K., Glare, P., Goh, C., ...Radbruch, L. (2008). Palliative medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier.
(Walsh et al., 2008)
Book chapters are cited the same way as books and articles.
Ogden, R. K., Goldman, M., & Wiseman, R. (2015). Clinical touch and cultural competence. In K. E. Nelson & T. Glonek (Eds.), Somatic dysfunction in osteopathic family medicine (pp. 16-32). Baltimore, MD: Wolters-Kluwer.
(Ogden, Goldman, & Wiseman, 2015)
Websites, email, and personal communications are not listed in the Reference List. They should be included as in-text citations.
Reynolds, G. (2012, April 11). How exercise can prime the brain for addiction [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/11/how-exercise-can-prime-the-brain-for-addiction/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, April 6). Calcium and bone health. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/vitamins/calcium.html
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011)
(John Doe, Ph.D., e-mail communication, April 18, 2010)
UpToDate is cited the same way as a book/book chapter.
McCulloch, D. K. (2017). Overview of medical care in adults with diabetes mellitus. In: A.G. Hoppin (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved from http://www.uptodate.com
Bhandari, J., Bressler, S., & Campbell, D. “How much is your weight worth?” Foundations of Modern Health Care Population Health Poster Day, Dothan, AL: December 2018.
Bhandari, J. “Identification of essential genes in platinum resistant high grade serous ovarian adenocarcinoma,” Society of Hospital Medicine, Dothan, AL: September 2019
There is not a specific APA-approved format for citing honors and awards you have received. The format will depend on how your CV is formatted, but you want to include all pertinent information. For instance, if this poster received an award for "Best Citation," the following information should be listed on the CV:
“How much is your weight worth?”
Foundations of Modern Health Care Population Health Poster Day